Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology
A publication of Bangladesh Sociological Society
General Guidelines and Reference Style for Authors
Bangladesh e-Journal of Sociology recommends the following guidelines and referencing style for formatting the papers:
- BEJS accepts papers in Microsoft Word Files
- Type your paper on a computer so that it can be printed out on a standard 8.5 x 11-inch (A4) paper.
- Margins should be set at 1”.
- Typeface should be in Arial.
- Font size should be 10 pt.
- Text should be set at Line Spacing at 1.50.
- Use either British or American Spelling throughout the text but DO NOT MIX.
- Leave only one space after periods or other punctuation marks.
- Do not indent the first line of paragraphs.
- Leave one extra line space between paragraphs.
- Avoid footnotes and endnotes or use very sparingly. If used, foot notes need to restart on each page. If you have any endnotes, include them on a separate page before your Reference page.
- Page numbers will begin in the header of the first page of the main text body in numeral 1.
- Put an extra line space before, but not after, headings/subheadings, and avoid ending them with periods.
Major Paper Sections
Title and Authorship
- The title of the article should come as the top most line and be centered.
- The title may be explained further with a subtitle (if needed) after a colon.
- The title shall be in 14 points Arial bold fonts
- The first letters of all words in the title (and sub-title) should be in upper case except for the articles and prepositions. The first letter after colon will be upper case.
- Acknowledgements for the article can be set as footnote with an asterisk
- The author(s) name will appear one line space after the title in 12 points Arial bold fonts.
- Current affiliation of the author(s) along with a contact email address is a must and can be set as a footnote marked with Roman numeral at the end of the name(s)
A concise and factual abstract of not more than 150-200 words is required for all articles. The abstract is the essence of the article and highlights the unique contribution of the article or may focus on a single issue.
Use Arial 8 point Italics and centre align text indenting to .5 on both sides.
Immediately after the abstract, please provide a maximum of 6 keywords, avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, 'and', 'of'). These keywords are used for indexing purposes.
- Length of the manuscript should not exceed 15,000 words. Smaller articles are preferred.
- Align the text on both sides
The article should use Section Headings to improve its readability. These include named parts that refer to the content in short headings without period at the end.
- The article starts with an “Introduction” set on the left hand side of the text in Arial 10 points in bold. No period or colon follows.
- Other sections follow with short headings in the same format.
- The last section is marked as “Conclusion”.
- Subsections/ subheadings should be used for longer papers. Sub section headings are done in Arial 10 points in Italics.
- Sub-sub sections are set in smaller fonts. Use Arial 9 points bold and alternate with Italics if further subdivision is required.
- DO NOT NUMBER section or sub-section.
Tables and Figures
- Table titles, and figure captions should be single-spaced and centered. Tables and figures can appear in the body of the manuscript and must be serially numbered in numerals. Please mark space in the main text to indicate the location of tables and figures, if not already in the proper position.
- Tables and figures or other materials not used in the text, but referred to, come as “Appendix” at the end of all other materials but need to be noted in the text as “Please see Appendix”. If more than one “Appendix” is used for different kinds of materials, mark them serially as “Appendix A”,B, C etc. (Left Aligned) and title the collection as “Appendices” on the first page, in bold and Center Aligned.
- Table number and title should be in Arial 10 pts and set in Bold. Table number and the title should be in Center Alignment.
- The column and row headings should be in Arial 10 point bold.
- Figure captions and number will be at the bottom of the figure Center Aligned. Figure numbers follow a separate serial (not that of the table).
- Tables and figures may be set in colors.
- Sources of data used in both tables and figures should be duly acknowledged in a footnote to the same. The Table Source/ Note would be in Arial 8 pt. In case of abbreviations and acronyms used in the tables and figures, these should be duly described in the main body text of the manuscript where they have been cited/ referenced/ interpreted as well as in the footnotes of the table/ figure. See examples below
When quoted directly from a work in a running sentence, cite the author, year of publication, and the page number in parenthesis. Use double quotes at the beginning and end of the quoted material. Use single quotes for quotations within the quoted text.
For paraphrasing another author, cite the author, year and page in parenthesis. No quotation marks necessary.
For quotes longer than 40 words, start a new paragraph indented ½ inch on both sides, in single spacing with Areal font 9. Do not use quotation marks, unless in the original. Put citation by author date and page at the end of the paragraph in parenthesis. Leave one space above and below the quoted text.
Emphasis in the quoted passage (either in Italics or in Bold) must be indicated as (emphasis original). If emphasis is made by the author it must be marked as (author’s emphasis)
Documentation should be presented in author-date style (similar to the Chicago Manual of Style), with all cited references collected in an alphabetical list (by author) titled "References” after the “Conclusion” and before the Appendix. Every work cited in the text, notes, appendices, tables, and figures must appear in the References; conversely, every work listed in the References should be cited in the text or elsewhere in the article. Do not number these.
In the Text
- Acknowledge all sources from which you have borrowed information including books, articles and data sources. You do this by making reference to the source.
- In case of an author of a book or journal article you put the year of publication within parenthesis after the name of the author. Example: Marx (1964) said that ….
- In case of two books or articles by the same author, put the second year of publication after the first with a comma.
- Often you may say a few things from the author but do not wish to include the name of the author in the text, in that case the name of the author and the year of publication both go inside the brackets. Example: ….stratification has also been seen in terms of class, status and power (Weber 1967).
- If two sources for two authors, separate with a semi-colon: (Weber 1967; Marx 1964).
- If more than one work of the same author is cited for the same year they are listed as a, b, c, etc (Weber 1967a, 1967b).
- If more than two authors for the same source, list by the last name of the authors (up to three authors) for the first time. For subsequent references use the last name of the first author and then et al. in Italics. But all names must go in the “References”.
- More than three authors use the last name of the first author and then et al. But all names must go in the “References”.
- If you wish to refer to any specific page(s) particularly if you have quoted from it, you put the page(s) number(s) with a colon after the year of publication. (Weber 1967:203 -204).
- For data sources, similarly, put the year of publication and the name of the data source
- For newspaper reports put the year and the name of the newspaper. Rest of the information goes in the Reference section.
Note that in this “Author-date” system of references you do not use “footnotes” for reference to the authors or data bases etc. All relevant materials go in the text. Footnotes are sometimes used, though very rarely, to put one or two additional information that are not directly relevant to the text.
All other information goes in the “References”.
In the “References”
All references are to be set in Arial 8 points in single line spacing, with an additional line space between entries.
- The names you have referred to, including data sources are listed in the References in alphabetical order.
- Do not number them.
- The names are referred to by the year of publication so that if there is more than one work by the same author the year of publication will identify that.
- Books are referred to by: Last name of author, comma, other names (first then second etc.) period (.), year of publication (period), Title of the book in Italics period. Then the place of publication, colon, name of the publisher. Example of a book reference: Mills, C.Wright. 1967. The Sociological Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press.
- A book with two authors: Last name of the first author, other names, then after an and, name of the second and other authors as they appear, first, second name etc., year of publication and the rest are the same as one author. Example: Stewart, Elbert W and James A Glynn. 1988. Introduction to Sociology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.
- Two books by the same author for the same year are listed as a, b, or c as was referred in the text
- For three or more authors, all the names must be listed in the order they appear, except for the first author who is listed with the last name first.
- For more than six authors list the first six names and then use et al.
- Edited books are referred by the author of the chapter or the article, and then comes the name of the editor with an “in” and the rest of the information like other books, except that the page number of the chapter or the article by the author will come after the name of publisher with a colon. Note also that for an edited book even if the editor is an author of a chapter the name of the editor (first then second and last names) must come like in all other cases. Example: Seidman, Steven. 1989. “Introduction”. In Steven. Seidman (ed), Jugen Habermas on Society and Politics: A Reader. Boston: Beacon Press: 1-25.
- Journal articles: Journal articles are referred to by the name of the author, year of publication, followed by the title of the article within double inverted commas, period. Then the name of the journal in Italics, followed by the volume number, issue number or month, followed by page numbers (from – to) after colon. Example: Schneider, Louis. 1967. “Dialectic in Sociology”. American Sociological Review36:667-678.
- For more than one author or two articles by the same author follow the style listed under books.
- News paper reports: the name of the News paper (in Italics) with year, then the title of the news item under inverted commas, followed by the page and column numbers. If the name of the reporter (columnist) is available then Name of the reporter, year, then the title of the news item under inverted commas then page and column numbers. Example: The New age. “Housewife Strangled in Khulna”. Page 10, Column 1 or Khademul Islam. 2006. “Major Parties Look to Take Control of the Streets”. The Newage. Page 1. column 3.
- Theses, Dissertations, Working Papers and Term Papers shall follow the styles of the book references but shall be followed by the word “Unpublished thesis / dissertation / term paper” and shall include the name of the institution where they were presented in place of the name of publisher with the words “Submitted to”. The title of the work will be under double inverted commas. Example: Islam, Nazrul. 1982. “Domestic Growth Factors, Foreign Economic Influences and Development: A Multivariate Test of Theories of Development”. Unpublished thesis submitted to the Graduate School, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY. USA.
- Conference, Seminar or workshop reports: Report as much information as are available including sponsor, date and place held.
- Internet sources must also be cited by the name of the website and the date viewed. Example: Islam, S. Aminul. 2006. “Sociology of Poverty: Quest for a New Horizon” Internet site: http://www.bangladeshsociology.org/BEJS%20-%202.1.4%20-%20Sardar.htm. Viewed on July 11, 2006.
- If author or dates are not available list the URL and the date viewed.
In case of any confusion or for additional information please refer to the Chicago Manual of Style.